Yoda Quotes and Phrases


Personal care products: harm or benefit


Every girl desires to be beautiful. And that is where the personal care products play a significant role. Mascaras, lipsticks, blushes, eye shadows, creams, shampoos – they all help to “hide” flaws and to focus on the merits.

Unfortunately, not all of us are given  a healthy and beautiful skin by nature. Causes of this can be both improper care of skin and internal problems of the body (for instance many diseases of the internal organs are reflected in the appearance of a person).

According to statistics an average woman in a developed country uses 12 personal care products a day, while an average man applies only 6. An average person uses 2 litres of shampoo a year plus 1 litre of conditioner for woman. A woman applies 11 mm of polish on her nails and eats 100 grams of lipstick a year while a man pours a 2 metre layer of shaving foam over his face. And this is not the end of the list.
Personal care products are believed to be beneficial and hence became utilities of an everyday life. For example, tone cream and face powder can make the skin shade even and beautiful. Mascara, eyeliner and eye shadow make eyes expressive and deep. In addition, they reflect unique style and mood. With these tools, you can create any desired impression: passion, femininity, modesty… Lipsticks, glosses, lip liners also reflect  personality and  mood. Fragrances, fake tans and hair products allow you to complete that image.

wpid-httphealth9orgwp-contentuploads201302Fungal-Rash-211Despite the obvious benefit of personal hygiene products and cosmetics, there are many opponents of their use. The reason is simple – their negative influence on the skin. The most discussed problems are allergic reactions and adverse effects on the skin. Many women believe that they are allergic to personal care products  where, in fact, they suffer from irritation caused by one or a whole group of substances in a certain product. Of course, cosmetics contain not only natural elements, but also many chemical compounds and ingredients that may affect the skin. Swelling, rash, redness, – these are all signs of allergic reactions. If the skin reacts quickly to the use of products that contain irritating ingredients, it is safe to say this is a sensitive skin. Often, such manifestations quickly disappear when the affected area is rinsed with water or soothing lotion is applied. Typically, the most damaging compounds for the sensitive skin are flavouring and colouring chemicals, preservatives , sunscreens and many others, both of natural and synthetic origin. If they take you there – you should stop using  products causing the skin problems. But the reasons may be not only in poor quality : idiosyncrasy can play a cruel joke, and even high-quality personal care products may cause reactions and irritations. As a result, you will have to give up and look for other means suitable for your skin. The best action in this case is a visit to a doctor and conduction of tests to identify allergens. However, if the cause is not an allergic reaction but a poor-quality cosmetics, the consequences can be serious. Therefore, experts advise not to use manufacturers of cosmetics that are unknown to you, if possible of course, otherwise, do it with extreme caution.
eyegrp_468x257Notoriously, poor-quality cosmetics is distinguished from the cosmetics that has expired. Many girls do not pay attention to the expiration date or believe that using outdated products will not bring about any harm. Meanwhile, such cosmetics can cause significant damage to health. For example, expired ink may result in eye diseases. Especially damaging are products from natural resources, although they are considered to be the most harmless. The shelf life of natural personal care products is very small, and women do not pay attention to it , resulting in the unsafe use of expired cosmetics. If the reason for the negative effects of personal hygiene products and cosmetics is the use of products after their use-by date, customers have no right to blame the manufacturer.expiry_2

In addition to complaints about the composition and quality of products, personal care products opponents have another argument: it prematurely ages the skin. Instead of improving its condition and prolonging youth, in fact, it turns out to have an opposite effect such as a premature aging of the skin while all women expect the opposite. A woman may harm herself even more when completely eliminates washing with water, replacing it with a variety of lotions and foams. These substances accumulate on skin, resulting in clogging of pores and  leads to skin aging .Doctors-dermatologists advise to use cosmetic products only when needed, to make sure to wash them off daily with water and do not apply a lot of makeup on the face. Thus, the damage from cosmetics can be reduced to a minimum.

Of course, the arguments of opponents and supporters of the use of these products have a right to exist; each of them has their own truth.

However, every year, after the application of harmful cosmetics, many people around the world confront problems such as burns, rashes, allergies, and even the loss of hair, not to mention possible carcinogenic effects, which occur with prolonged use of these chemicals.

Once choosing a cosmetic product, people must know the harmful and dangerous cosmetic ingredients. This article does not serve as a call to abandon a number of comforts of civilization. You just need to be informed and to give up the goods which include hazardous, poisonous ingredients.

Why do the manufacturers of these products include dangerous substances while there are safer counterparts?

The first reason -they use the ingredients that are cheaper. And when some of the developed and consumer-conscious countries prohibit the utilisation of cheap and dangerous constituents, there still remain many countries where this is allowed. Thus even “serious” and “respectful” producers do not hesitate to use cheap components. The second reason – often manufacturers use untested ingredients, without spending time and money on a thorough research of newly created substances. Moreover, producers do not rush to give them up even if they have side effects.

Have you ever noticed how advertising affects the price and quality of the products? When a new product appears in the market, no matter what it is – chocolate, sausage or cosmetics, it usually satisfies you in terms of price and quality. But then, when the item of interest begins to be constantly advertised on television, it either becomes expensive or starts to deteriorate in quality, and often, unfortunately, both happens. Usually, the quality of the world’s widely advertised brands is low – the bulk of the cost of production goes to advertising and expansion of the corporation.

List of hazardous substances in personal hygiene products and cosmetics (for more detailed descriptions refer to related articles) :

1. Sodium lauryl sulfate(SLS) or Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES) – found in shampoos and other cosmetics. Should not be contained in children’s cosmetics! Particularly dangerous for children!

2 . Phosphates – anionic surfactant, used in washing powders or other detergents. Avoid detergents containing these substances , as well as those containing chlorine.

3 . Phthalates. Abbreviations : BBP – phenyl butyl phthalate , DBP – di ( n-butyl) phthalate , DEHP – di (2 – ethylhexyl) phthalate, DEP – diethyl phthalate , DHP – di-n -hexyl phthalate. Phthalates are often a part of perfumery and hair lotions, antiperspirants . According to CDC – American Center for Disease Control and Prevention , they are carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic for posterity. Particularly dangerous for children, pregnant and nursing mothers.

4 . Fluoride and sodium fluoride -found in toothpastes . Should not be contained in children’s toothpaste ! Particularly dangerous for children.

5 . Propylene glycol , ethylene glycol – found in creams , lotions and other humidifiers , decorative cosmetics liquids . If it is listed as one of the first [ingredients] in a cosmetic composition, it indicates a high concentration of substance!

6 . Lanolin – ingredient of various cosmetics , usually creams ( may cause skin sensitization ) .

7. Triclosan chlorophenol – as an antibacterial substance that is a part of antibacterial soaps, toothpastes , shaving creams and other cosmetics and detergents. One of its “advantages” is destroying harmful and beneficial bacteria, however the side effects are not less dangerous.

8. Parabens the collective name for methylparaben, butylparaben, ethylparabenparabeny – in cosmetic products, they are used as preservatives . In antiperspirants, they used as antimicrobials against perspiration and may cause dermatitis , allergies and other skin effects.

9 . Aluminum salts – are a part of deodorants and antiperspirants (can cause  breast cancer).

10. Methyldibromglutaronitrile (MDGN) – as a preservative is a part of gels, masks, creams, tanning, shampoos (often causes allergic reactions, skin diseases).

11. Loramid D – this is a semi-synthetic chemical used for foaming and thickening of various cosmetic products. In addition, it is used in detergents for washing dishes because of its ability to remove fat (can dry the hair and the skin, causing itching, and allergic reactions) .

The debate about the dangers and benefits of cosmetics continues for years. One group of people is in favour of the use of cosmetics, the other – against. Each leads the arguments, and almost all of them are right because it can be both damaging and beneficial. The main point is: it is necessary to select cosmetics very carefully. Then your skin will say “Thank you”

Traveling amongst students.


In some countries, young people are encouraged to work or travel for a year between finishing high school and starting university studies. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide to do this.

It is clear that traveling  is the oldest means of acquiring knowledge. So what could be more useful for a school graduates than traveling abroad combined with work there?

First of all, most students, done their living certificates, have never stayed outside their parental home longer than one or two weeks. At the same time the majority of young people starting university studies leave their homes and parents for at least 3 years. Finding themselves in unfamiliar surrounding among strange people, they realise how helpless and defenseless they are. Thus, traveling may help to beat the feeling of helplessness and to gain or improve social skills. After a year’s trip overseas students become more confident and independent. They make friends faster and easily settle down in a new environment.

Upon leaving abroad young people broaden their minds and improve their knowledge about other cultures and social ways of life that also will be helpful in residing within international communities, as many of university hostels are. Such students quickly find means to resolve existing household issues and problems at work.

The next advantage is that these students working for a year after finishing school as earning money for future educational and living needs as have a spare year in order to decide what exact careers they are going to choose. Therefore some of them after working at in their desired industry may change their minds and find the more appropriate option or ensure themselves in an already made choice. However, some people do not want to travel for some reasons. For example, traveling one cannot enjoy the comfort of his home. Also, the possibilities of robberies and losing of baggage should be taken into account.

To sum up, although traveling or work is a good way to get educated, get impressions, nice memories and many friends, it needs extra precautions in order to have a safe journey.

Cooperation or competition: that is the question.

slide-1-728Some people think that a sense of competition in children should be encouraged. Others believe that children who are taught to cooperate rather than compete become more useful adults. 
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Parents always expect more from their children and in order to help them to be the best, parents may be inclined to promote different ways of education such as competition or cooperation. Both methods have their benefits and drawbacks.

It is undoubtedly clear that competition forces children to make more efforts in order to gain desirable things or marks, hence improves their skills and abilities. Competitive young people are very determined and strong-willed. However, the excess of competitiveness may bring harm to youth. For example, children with an excessive sense of competition aim only for a win. They cannot accept failure and that in turn may push them to lie or cheat.

However, youngsters with an inclination to cooperate very often become good team players in adulthood, who are able to solve problems and disagreements existing in a group or at a work place. They will easily lead a working team and drive it towards a stated target. There is no doubt that students who prefer cooperation usually yield to competitive ones in speed of task performance. However, the latter easily compensate for it in accuracy of performance and diversity of task answers.

To sum up, although both methods of child’s development have their advantages, as I see it, the best answer lays in moderation of competitiveness and cooperation. Thus, such a child will overlap disadvantages of one method with advantages of another.

Undergrounds in London, Paris, Tokyo, Washington, Kyoto and Los Angeles


The table below gives information about the underground railway systems in six cities.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

This table shows data about the undergrounds in London, Paris, Tokyo, Washington, Kyoto and Los Angeles in terms of dates of opening, length of routes and number of passengers.

It is noticeable that the oldest railway system of the six given was opened in London in 1863 while the newest system, the Los Angeles underground, was founded almost a century and a half later in 2001. Four other undergrounds were started in the 20th century : two of which were Paris and Tokyo at the beginning and the other two at the end of the century.

When we compare the lengths of the railway systems we can see that length of route almost corresponds to date of genesis. The longest is the London underground at a route of 394 kilometers. The next one is Paris with the length of the system being half of that in London. The shortest system is in Kyoto at 11 kilometres. Although Los Angeles is the most resent, it almost 3 times as long as Kyoto’s one at 28 km.

A close examination of the number of passengers reveals that the most popular are the ones in the Tokyo and Paris with 1927 and 1191m passengers per year respectively, while the less used are Kyoto and Los Angeles at 45 and 50 million respectively.

To sum up, the table show us that the length of undergrounds mostly depends on the dates of opening, however the numbers of passengers were not relevant to the dates but possibly to the population of cities.

Reasons for study according to age and employer support


The charts below show the main reasons for study among students of different age groups and the amount of support they received from employers.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

These two charts display how student age correlates to motivation for study and to the degree to which their employers support them.

According to the first chart the percentage of students, who study for their career, steadily decreases with age starting from 80% for the group  under 26 and reaches almost 20% for the group over 49%.However, the percentage of those who study for interest increases significantly from 10% to 70% for the same groups respectively. It is noticeable that only in the group 40-49 the percentage of students for both study reasons are level at 40%.

When we compare support that employers extend to working students we can see that 60% of students up to 26 years old get time off and help with fees. The percentage of employer’s support declines in the two next groups, halving for the group age of 30-39,while slightly recovering in the following two groups, reaching 40% for student over 40.

Report on a company performance



Office & Industrial Cleaners Ltd was founded in 1982 by Frank McEwen. In over 30 years-period the company built up a large client base in the greater Dublin area. The business usually focuses on the long-term and short-term accomplishments.

One of the OIC’s strategic approaches to obtaining a strong client base is to attract, train and retain high calibre staff.

With its head office based in Dublin 11, OIC employs Management Team of six (2 Head Managers, 2 Department Managers, Administration Officer and Accountant) and working force of over 500 people. The company splits onto two departments: Office Cleaning Department and Industrial Cleaning Department. Management Team reports on regular basis to two head mangers.

Terms of Reference:

1. To investigate implemented organising process in work environment of OIC, Ltd through all five steps:

  • division of labours;
  • delegation of authority;
  • departmentalisation;
  • span of control;
  • co-ordination;

2. Examine the efficiency of organisational structures and accomplishment of company’s goals.

3. To make appropriate recommendations.


In order to compile information for this work the following techniques were involved:

  1. Company’s handbook, service and condition of employment and issues records were examined;
  2. Managers of industrial and office departments were interviewed face to face.
  3. The staff of 10 members from both industrial and office departments were interviewed.

Note: Two visits were paid to Office & Industrial Cleaners, Ltd, which is located at Rosemount Business Park, Dublin 11. The dates were mutually agreed with the head manager. These were: 12/12/12 and 20/12/12 (refer to Appendix 1). Upon both travels to the Business Park, I carried out face-to-face conversations, which lasted approximately 2 hours per day (10 – 25min with each supervisor or manager)

Two types of questionnaires were introduced to the employees. Questionnaire I, concentrated on the responsibilities of the management team, was handed over to all managers and supervisors, where Questionnaire II, concentrated on the performance of the Operatives was emailed to the staff of 20 Cleaning Technicians, who willingly agreed to co-operate with this research. All names were kept off the record. The questionnaires were emailed on December 14, 2012. Only 13 technicians replied back. For the questionnaire examples refer to Appendix 2a and 2b

All references and information collected as a result of face-to-face conversations and email responds was viewed by the head manager A and verbally approved for disclosing on December 22, 2012.


Upon my both visits to the head office and conducting face-to-face conversations with the managers and supervisors as well as relying onto the email responds received from Cleaning Technicians (CTs) it was found, that:

1. On entering a contract the managers initially examine plans and duties poorly and superficially determine the work activities necessary to accomplish contract. “Quantity needed to perform work often excesses the time given for cleaning” (Manager B). The above mentioned leads to a loss of efficiency and limited effectiveness of Operatives and CTs performing their cleaning works.

2. Division of labour on entering a contract is done unevenly that leads to frustration among Operatives and CTs;

3. While the contracts served, there are no continuous examinations of accomplished work and duties. As Supervisor A stated: “Number of tasks may increase” while the time of work remains the same. Such submission of new errands by organisation-client results in confusion among employees and changes in priority of carried out works (the tasks that haven’t been previously listed on the contract now become an essential part of the everyday routine hence CT becomes confused with regard to what he/she should perform first);

4.  Managers do not assign tasks to CTs individually, at the same time not giving them the correct amount of authority to accomplish work (according to CT A), so employers have responsibility for the tasks, outcomes but little authority;

5. There is no or very poor monitoring of employees’ performance, which with excessive delegation of authority (in some cases) leads to deterioration in quality of work and violation of working hours;

6. All questioned managers explained that some employees accept authority but forget about responsibility and accountability. “Sometimes they even are impossible to accept delegation of authority” as stated supervisor C. This may cause disbalance in supply process of cleaning staff;

7. As one of the CTs stated: “there is lack of communication between supervisor and operative” meaning that there is no direct or particular scheme of reporting about performed tasks and contracts. Chain of commands is broken and very often employees do not know who should report to whom. All this results in misunderstanding between levels of the organisation as well as in violation of cleaning staff supply. To explain this Manager B stated that most tasks are delegated and reported “informally by a mobile phone”;

8. Despite the fact that the organisation consists of only two departments: industrial cleaning and office cleaning departments, communication between them is week (for Organisational Chart refer to Appendix 3). Managers rely merely on their departments’ employees. Such relationship sometimes causes difficulties in covering sick people or those who are on holidays;

9. Span of control within the organisations is very wide that with absence of well established sets of Standard Operating Procedures causes misunderstanding between managers and employees. Managers do not know subordinates personally. It was also mentioned by one of the CTs that often managers do not know if a selected individual possesses the skills and capabilities needed to complete the task (based on the respond of CT G).

10. There is a lack of informal groups within OIC, ltd which expresses in poor formal communication and understanding between employee and manager;

11. In question 5 of questionnaire II, over a half of CTs had mentioned that the constant changes of managers, particularly supervisors, have a bad impact onto operatives. “they come and leave” expressed his negative respond one of the CTs, meaning that a new manager on joining the company needs some time to learn employee’s profile, meanwhile those CTs who have some difficulties with performing one or another task have to do those task after all (in a case when CT has some health implication with his/her back and cannot perform lifting operations, however because new manager is not yet aware of this, the manager still assigns CT to perform this type of work)

12. Section 1g of The company Handbook, where it explains matter on remuneration, there is no mentioning of reward system that could be implemented among the personnel of the company (refer to Appendix 4).


Based on gathered information concerning the issues that rise within OIC, ltd I would advise the following:

1. Entering any contract managers must carefully examine place and duties and determine the work activities for every contract. Also they must carry out examination of all already existing contracts;

2. Managers should provide a clear division of labour, splitting the job equally or proportionally to working hours before the first visit by CT to the cleaning site;

3. They should control changes and additions to existing contracts. For instance extending working hours if necessary or reducing quantity of the required works that has to be performed ;

4. They should clearly explain tasks to employees, giving them a certain amount of authority to accomplish the work;

5. Mangers should determine the horizontal (co-ordinating) hierarchy of relationships between them and the staff;

6. They need to meet all subordinates personally. Monitoring of all performing employees must be carried out immediately and managers have to keep to exiting schedule of monitoring;

7. The managers need to make sure that employees know that they are ultimately responsible for conducting specific task. Managers also should ensure that employees accept responsibility and know that they are accountable for their work and activities at the cleaning site;

8. They should develop and arrange clear and easy system of reporting and communication with employees in order to improve the process of delivering the ordered cleaning staff in time as well as be aware of any done or not done job;

  1. Managers should provide rewarding scheme to CTs and operatives for successful outcomes;
  2. They should encourage appearance of informal groups within the organisation in order to spread the information among all CTs and Operatives in a faster way.



It would be advised for the head managers to:

  • Narrow the span of control;
  • Appoint at least two new managers, one for each department;
  • Provide and encourage more close relationship between departments;
  • Develop a system so to retain the employees of management team, with the same reduce implications with regard to relationship between manager and a worker


Based on the OIC, Ltd handbook the company enters the contract in the following way:

  • Managers examine information about the organisation-client (concerning the cleaning demands, working hours, etc);
  • They give all gathered information to the head managers who decide whether to proceed with entering the contract or not.

Also, based on the compiled report within OIC, ltd (see above) there was designed, documented and implemented procedure to deal with the management issues described in the report.

System Implementation

Firstly, in order to relieve pressure on managers as well as to narrow span of control I would recommend the company to hire two more managers, one for each department. Secondly I would recommend introduce the developed system (outlined above) to all mangers as soon as possible.

During the first few weeks the newly hired managers should enter a contract under the supervision of more experienced colleagues in order to develop confidence and skill on practice. Having a potential contract ready for negotiation managers must carefully examine conditions of work and time proposed by organisation-client. Also OIC must check next points:

  • To be sure that the business, they are entering in a contract with, is registered in the state;
  • Ways of payment;
  • To find out what is the exact service, which OIC will proved for client (managers of both organisations should be sure that they are talking about the same type and quantity of work);
  • To specify exact time, frames for delivery of the service, procedure and time for correcting a service mistake if such one will occur;
  • To specify who will be doing the service and their credentials.

If all points are agreed, managers should pass the contact to head managers in order to acquaint and sign it. If some disagreements arise about the contract the managers should negotiate such issues as: quantity of work (if some part of work can be cancelled) and frequency of work (if some work can be done evenly) and so on.

When issues are solved head managers get the contract to sign it. If there are still some disagreements the contracts should be suspended.

Once the company enters the contract, managers should introduce employed personnel to the contractor, split work in equal parts between employees, explaining tasks to CTs personally.

Next task for the manager is to delegate employee in order to save some time and provide maximum flexibility in meeting customer needs;

If the employees accept responsibility, they should be given authority and freedom to contribute ideas and their jobs in a best possible way. If not, their work should be frequently monitored. As the contact comes to an end or at the end of calendar year all succeeded CTs and Operatives should be rewarded according to their productivity work and level of their independence; how well they made their decisions and how well they responded to problems throughout a year.

Employees who had working issues during contract will have to pass specific trainings in order to increase their productivity.

Organising must be a carefully worked out and applied process. Therefore in order to maintain designed and implemented procedure to be effective, it should be reconsidered and amended at the end of every year on the basis of new appeared issues and changes in the business.

Management Skills Demonstration

By implementing and using the mentioned above system, the management of OIC will demonstrate:

  • Ability to work on their own initiative and be able to work under pressure when they negotiate contracts;
  • Be able to work as a part of a team when it comes to inter-department relationship;
  • Communication skills with customers and employees by doing monitoring of work;
  • Flexibility, reliability and punctuality on meeting client, doing work monitoring;

The system applied by the OIC management will gain:

  • respect of employees (because everyone wants to be known and heard);
  • respect of current or potential clients (because they have flexibility and desire to negotiate contracts and skills to defend their interest, when it is required);
  • sympathy because of the scheduled monitoring, which shows the company and its managers are interested in the contract.

As a result of all proposed above actions I believe OIC, Ltd will become more compatible among the other cleaning companies within the Dublin area as well as it will increase its sales rates.

Post-school qualification in Australia

158467_1_oThe chart above shows the different levels of post school qualifications in Australia and the proportion of men and women who held them in 1999.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.

This chart display the percentage of post-school graduates in Australia according to gender and qualification levels in 1999.

According to the chart the men is higher in skilled vocational diplomas,postgraduate diplomas and masters degrees,whereas women dominated in undergraduate diplomas and bachelor’s degrees.

When we compare levels of post-school qualification we can see that the highest level of males was in skilled vocational diplomas,at about 90%,nine times more than that of females.While the lowest one was in undergraduate diplomas at around 35%,almost half of that of women at the same level.The smallest difference between genders existed in bachelor’s degrees,where it was less than 10% in favour of women,who slightly exceeded 50%.The percentage of females in undergraduate diplomas and males in postgraduate diplomas were equal at 70%.However,the percentage of men in undergraduate diplomas was higher than that of women in postgraduate diplomas 35% and 30% respectively.

To sum up,the biggest difference between genders was in skilled vocational diplomas,while in others levels the percentage fluctuated from 30% to 70%.

Schools have severe problems with student behaviour.

images                             Changes taking place in modern society have put forward a number of problems, one of which is the problem of educating the child with difficult behaviour. The urgency of it is that every year there has been an increase of juvenile delinquency, alcoholism, drug abuse, etc. Hence there is the tendency to an increase of the number of children with deviant behaviour. This behaviour is characterized by a deviation from the accepted moral and in some cases law patterns. It includes antisocial, illegal and auto-aggressive (suicide and self destructive) actions.

 Reasons for deviations in behaviour occur as a result of socio-economic, political and environmental instability of society; changes of the level of value orientations of young people; adverse family relations; lack of parental control over the behaviour and the free time of their child; over-employment of adults; great number of divorce, etc. All this undermines the child’s confidence in him/her-self, a capacity for self-regulation and self-assertion in critical situations.  

The personality of the youngster is not formed in a vacuum and by itself, but in the surrounding social environment. The last is crucial to the process of education.

 The first manifestations of deviant behaviour are sometimes observed in the early school years and can be explained by:

·      the relatively low level of the intellectual development of the child,

·      “defects” in the process of identity formation,

·      a negative influence of family and community.

The older the child, the more reasons contributing to deviations in behaviour they have. This may be dependence of child on the requirements of groups and adopted value orientations in these groups as well as persistent school failure, which is manifested in absence school knowledge and cognitive interests.

 Systematic school failure is a serious cause of deviant behaviour. The growth of school failure leads to a complete lack of desire to learn. As a result, the student has a lot of spare time, which is nothing to fill with, because there are neither cognitive aspirations, nor the interested works and assignments.

An important group of factors of deviant behaviour are associated with the spreading of various kinds of social pathologies such as an increase in mental illness, impaired gene pool of the population, alcoholism, suicidal feelings, etc.

The  most important issues are concerned to the child’s family such as deprivation, family discord, educational incompetence of parents, criticism, punishment for nothing, bad language when interacting with family members, parents’ alcoholism and even the fact of belonging to a dysfunctional family itself.

No less important problems of the child are illness leading to gaps in learning, loneliness, obscurity by others and some emotional and intellectual characteristics of teenagers such as irritability, aggression, low emotional and volitional control. Their mass sprawling creates the illusion of a normal adolescent behaviour, at least the absence of something extraordinary, immoral. As a result, adolescent subculture appears with its “rules” which allows to do everything what they want. That leads to denying the norms established by adult society, imposing their ideas of normal behaviour, appearing of the youth system of values ​​with their bosses and priorities.

Student’s family plays a huge role in the mechanisms of social adaptation to all the living environment of the society. There is no such type of education in the family, which would definitely cause abnormal behaviour of the child or adolescent. But the families of children with behavioural problems are some of the features. Parents in these families are usually ” in little knowledge” of their children or not well aware of their feelings, pay them little time and attention, cannot control their behaviour, almost do not know about their friends and what they do in their spare time.

Adverse family environment contributes to disrupt process of socialization of the student and leads to the accumulation of its deviant potential. Professionals such as teachers, social workers, psychologists, school doctors can adequately examine the conditions of the child and family  in order to organize the work with parents. For example, the interaction of these professionals aim to identify shared behavioural problems in a child or group of children, that in turn will help to forecast the possible development of students and the organization of work for the prevention and correction of deviant behaviour. The effectiveness of work of an integrated team of  these specialists at the school with children and adolescents who have behavioural problems are strongly dependent on the well-organized process of studying the individual child and his inner world.

defaultAmong the factors that explain the deviant behaviour of children and adolescents is the position of the child in the group. This may be a school team, class, interest groups, etc. The loss of comfort in a school community leads to the fact that the child seeks for a more comfortable group. Thus, the more likely we can predict that a violation of the child’s relationship in a group is a main cause to deviant behaviour.

The next factor to be taken into account when forecasting – is the effect of the group on a student. Such factor considers the child to be the leader of a particular group when he/she fully accepts the values ​​and objectives or is able to defend the views on things and events.

Although all the above factors are closely related, for a particular student, a particular factor may be dominant. Therefore, educational support for children and adolescents with behavioural problems aims to restore their normal social status, self-improvement through adequate study of psychological difficulties and challenges: motivational, behavioural, informational, emotional, and personal. Any measure is as effective as it takes into account the uniqueness and originality of the child. What counts is the individual approach, which means to identify the specific nature of the psychological difficulties of deviant child and effective teaching mechanisms that underlie children’s issues.

The most important task for cooperative work of teachers and parents is preventive work, which aim is to identify children and adolescents who are prone to deviant behaviour or having initial signs of deviant behaviour. In a broader sense, an individual approach should be applicable equally to all children, suggesting a good knowledge of the personality by each child’s teacher. An important step to increase the effectiveness of both general and individual preventive work is the development and implementation of activities that have a common goal – to control the process of socialization of children and adolescents and the elimination of antisocial influences.

The next way is re-education of a “difficult” child in schools, which aims to displace accumulated negative experiences by positive in the process of communication. Thought-out plan of educational work with “difficult” students largely determines success in their rehabilitation. In this respect, there are two aspects that are highly complementary. First, the event is designed for all “difficult” students at the school. Second is an individual work with each of the students. The first aspect is embodied in the school-wide level, and the second – in terms of class teachers and caregivers.

As a rule of thumb, an educational plan of correction must answer three questions:

·      what should be eliminated (negative factors of family and school education, negative personality traits);

·      a way to fix the problem (how to analyze school student, who changes the nature of the relationship);

·      Who is to do it and what to do (distribution of responsibilities among educators, psychologists ).

Response to the plan gives us a list of goals and objectives for a specific period, indicating the ways and means of achieving them.

The school-wide plan should include:

·      measures to identify “difficult” children,

·       measures to form culture of student conduct,

·      research on best practices and scientific advice on the problem rehabilitation of students with behavioural disorders.

 Plan of individual work with “difficult” students may include the following sections :

·      identify specific deficiencies and the objective difficulties of educating the child in family and school,

·       analysis of the moral and psychological features of his personality,

·      the positive identification of existing interests and hobbies,

·      a list of the ways and means of forming positive personality traits and the organization of social and valuable experience.

It is important that all of the planned activities constitute a system and continue to complement one another, being not accidental, not contrary to other educational activities. 

The most difficult task of the teacher is to find a key to understanding the “difficult” child or adolescent. One key that will make a system of adequate educational measures to work is to promote an environment in which a child would want to change their behaviour. In developing strategies for working with these children for teachers, it should be understood that for any student behaviour problems there are certain motives. Moreover, the same behaviour can be caused by different reasons. For example, the aggressive behaviour of a child in the school can be caused by a desire for power, the development of leadership qualities or as compensation to increased anxiety.

Respectively, the educational strategy in each case will be built individually, based on the understanding of the causes of the child’s behaviour. Thus, teachers need to find the motives of “difficult” child in other words they must understand them. Such strategy or stage clarifies the understanding of cause and effect of “difficult” student behaviour.

During the life adults develop certain stereotypes related to “difficult” children, a set of typical reactions to a particular student’s negative behaviour. Most often, when faced with challenging behaviour of children, many teachers have enough destructive feelings: anger, resentment, frustration, anxiety, fear, grief and so on which paralyze the creative approach to the selection of non-standard behaviour of educational strategies. It is important to recognize the feelings and not allow them to control the mind. The ability of the teacher to see themselves through the eyes of a child, to put yourself in his place, to think not only about their own feelings, but also about a child’s feelings – these steps are necessary in order to understand “difficult” student as he or she is. This is the second important emotional stage.

model-whyThe third stage – the stage of educational influences on the “difficult” students – will have positive results only if the success of the first two was achieved. Teachers will be able to help a child if he/she feels and understands that adults feel and understand their problems and take it for what it is. If a child or adolescent will be open for communication and education, only then he will want to change his negative behaviour.

In conclusion, only individual appeal to the individual child’s interests and hobbies, taking into account the peculiarities of its development will help teachers find a way to the “difficult” children. It is well known that it is always easier to prevent than cure. The same principal may be applied to education. The best way to prevent is to assist in the implementation of the basic needs of the “difficult” child of love, security, attention, satisfaction. It is important to foster a strong-willed, moral, intellectual and spiritual qualities that sustain people. Self-determined individual with his own life-centre is unlikely to fall under the influence of negative norms and patterns of behaviour.


The meaning of the word happiness has so many uses and is so ambiguous as the meaning of the word “love.” For centuries people have tried to understand what it takes to be happy, how to find happiness and do not lose it. The answers to these questions are not simple. Ask different people what a person needs to be happy and everyone will respond differently.

Why do people define happiness in different ways? To understand why this is so, it is enough to think about what kind of people live among us. For example, neighbour: a lonely grandmother; a mother of many who work hard; dad saving up for a long time in order to buy a foreign car; young girl dreaming from childhood about dancing and becoming a famous dancer; her brother nervous because of the regular session. All of them are ordinary people who live among us, but they have different dreams. Grandma certainly wants to be with her family; the mother wishes her children grow obedient, healthy, and good people; the father – finally to buy a long-awaited car; the girl – to become a talented dancer, and her brother – to pass successfully his session as soon as possible. The dream makes people happy.

 One once has noticed that when wants something for a long time, and suddenly the dream is becoming reality, they feel like the happiest in the world! It was this moment that we can assume happiness. Thus, happiness can be defined as the realization of dreams and desires that everyone has their own. So when we think about how often and how much people dream or want something and we will understand why one cannot give full definition to happiness.

To be happy people often need not just one, but several different things. Despite the fact that happiness is very subjective, let’s try to define what is needed for happiness to most people.

Love, friendship, family. A person should not be one. to be happy Many people need a loved one such as own mother, beloved husband, loyal friend. Having close friends and loved ones, a person becomes truly happy, a loneliness gives joy to none. Think about how little it takes to be happy! Embrace of a loved one, mother’s support in difficult times, a friend who knows how to cheer in sadness. Sometimes a good gesture and friendly conversation are enough to feel happy, to understand that you are not alone, that there are a number of those who are dear to you and who loves you.

Financial well-being. People have to worry about making money, because money provide comfort, stability, possibility use of different goods in our world. How much money do a person need to be happy? The answer is, again, subjective. The homeless will have enough money for which he can rent a house and buy a meal. The woman who are used to the constant luxury will need much more in order to buy exclusive and beautiful goods.

It often happens that a person wants to earn more, he is promoted, salary increases, he becomes happy for a moment, and then he dreams about bigger amounts of money. And then more and more… For these people, the answer to the question of how much they need to be happy, will never be accurate, because they will always want more money.

The pursuit of ever greater material well-being – is not the way to true happiness. One can pack their house with the latest technology from top to bottom, to fill closet with the most fashionable clothes, to stuff  with the most expensive makeup… One can spend a whole life with temporary pleasure of the new purchase, and at the end of their life to remain lonely and miserable. Because, this person was too busy making money, they did not have time to communicate with family and friends, he had no time to create a family, and expensive things not give warmth and friendly support in the end.

Undoubtedly, the material well-being is an integral part of the happiness of the modern man, but it is important not to become a blind slave of fortune, because the temptation to make money and then constantly spend them, subjected many people.

Health One does not need a lot for happiness – they begin to understand it when get ill. Health is such that you do not appreciate it and do not notice when it is all right. But as soon illness overcomes, a person realizes that they cannot be fully happy when are sick. Old people and patients with severe, incurable diseases know the value of health and can tell about it. As long as the person is healthy, he is full of vitality and can do a lot more to try to live a long interesting life. Taking care of their health, people will someday realize how important is a role of health in their life.

 Self-development Life – is a constant movement, search, development. We are also subjected to these laws of life: we grow physically, getting smarter, grow spiritually, understand the world. It is important to be interested in life, in the knowledge of the world, self-knowledge. New hobbies, unusual travel, meeting of new people, development of new skills and obtaining of knowledge, spiritual development are very important for a person. They make life of person more interesting, give new experiences and ideas, which lead to desire to live an feel happy. Can there be a happy person who is not interested in and is not keen on about anything and just sleeps, eats and drinks? This is not life, but existence, which does not exactly bring happiness.

The male and female happiness. Happiness is also different on gender, but the subject is so vast that it is difficult to see in a single article.

What a woman needs to be happy: to love and be loved, to be surrounded by family and friends, to feel attractive and interesting, to have children and pets, to develop her talents and gain self-realization in life, to have good fitting job and interesting hobby.

What does a man need to be happy? Man lives in constant competition, so in order to be happy he needs success at work, in personal life, in friendship: good work and high income, loving and understanding woman, loyal friends and happy children.

Of course, the answers to these questions are primitive and are sufficiently general, but again – happiness for each one is different, so to determine once and for all what is needed to be happy for all women or all men, would be wrong.